Cognizin® Study References

Agut J. Lopez G-Coviella I. Ortiz JA. & Wurtman RJ.: Oral cytidine 5'-diphosphate choline administration to rats increases brain phospholipid levels. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 695:318-20, 1993

Alvarez XA. Sampedro C. Lozano R. & Cacabelos R.: Citicoline protects hippocampal neurons against apoptosis induced by brain beta-amyloid deposits plus cerebral hypoperfusion in rats. Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology. 21(8):535-40, 1999

Alvarez XA. Mouzo R. Pichel V. Perez P. Laredo M. Fernandez-Novoa L. Corzo L. Zas R. Alcaraz M. Secades JJ. Lozano R. & Cacabelos R.: Double-blind placebo-controlled study with citicoline in APOE genotyped Alzheimer's disease patients. Effects on cognitive performance, brain bioelectrical activity and cerebral perfusion.Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology.21(9):633-44, 1999

Alvarez XA. Laredo M. Corzo D. Fernandez-Novoa L. Mouzo R. Perea JE. Daniele D. & Cacabelos R.: Citicoline improves memory performance in elderly subjects. Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology. 19(3):201-10, 1997

Andersen M. Overgaard K. Meden P. Boysen G. & Choi SC.: Effects of citicoline combined with thrombolytic therapy in a rat embolic stroke model. Stroke. 30(7):1464-71, 1999

Babb SM., Appelmans KE., Renshaw PF, Wurtman RJ, Cohen BM.: Differential effect of CDP-choline on brain cytosolic choline levels in younger and older subjects as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Psychopharmacology. 127:88-94, 1996.

Babb SM. Wald LL. Cohen BM. Villafuerte RA. Gruber SA. Yurgelun-Todd DA. Renshaw PF.: Chronic Citicoline increases phosphodiesters in the brains of healthy older subjects: an in vivo phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Psychopharmacology. 161(3):248-54, 2002 May.

Baskaya MK. Dogan A. Rao AM. & Dempsey RJ.: Neuroprotective effects of citicoline on brain edema and blood-brain barrier breakdown after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurosurgery. 92(3):448-52, 2000

Bierer LM. Haroutunian V. Gabriel S. Knott PJ. Carlin LS. Purohit DP. Perl DP. Schmeidler J. Kanof P. & Davis KL.: Neurochemical correlates of dementia severity in Alzheimer's disease: relative importance of the cholinergic deficits. Journal of Neurochemistry. 64(2):749-60, 1995

Bruhwyler J. Liegeois JF. & Geczy J.: Facilitatory effects of chronically administered citicoline on learning and memory processes in the dog.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry.22(1):115-28, 1998

Caamano J. Gomez MJ. Franco A. & Cacabelos R.: Effects of CDP-choline on cognition and cerebral hemodynamics in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology.16(3):211-8, 1994

Cacabelos R. Caamano J. Gomez MJ. Fernandez-Novoa L. Franco-Maside A. & Alvarez XA.: Therapeutic effects of CDP-choline in Alzheimer's disease. Cognition, brain mapping, cerebrovascular hemodynamics, and immune factors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 777:399-403, 1996

Cacabelos R. Alvarez XA. Franco-Maside A. Fernandez-Novoa L. & Caamano J.: Effect of CDP-choline on cognition and immune function in Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 695:321-3, 1993

Clark W. Gunion-Rinker L. Lessov N. & Hazel K.: Citicoline treatment for experimental intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Stroke. 29(10):2136-40, 1998

Clark WM. Williams BJ. Selzer KA. Zweifler RM. Sabounjian LA. & Gammans RE.: A randomized efficacy trial of citicoline in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 30(12):2592-7, 1999

de la Morena E.: Efficacy of CDP-choline in the treatment of senile alterations in memory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.640:233-6, 1991

Fernandez-Novoa L. Alvarez XA. Franco-Maside A. Caamano J. & Cacabelos R.: CDP-choline-induced blood histamine changes in Alzheimer's disease. Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology. 16(4):279-84, 1994

Fioravanti M. & Yanagi M.: Cytidinediphosphocholine (CDP choline) for cognitive and behavioural disturbances associated with chronic cerebral disorders in the elderly. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. (4):CD000269, 2000.

Franco-Maside A. Caamano J. Gomez MJ. & Cacabelos R.: Brain mapping activity and mental performance after chronic treatment with CDP-choline in Alzheimer's disease. Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology. 16(8):597-607, 1994

Fresta M. & Puglisi G.: Reduction of maturation phenomenon in cerebral ischemia with CDP-choline-loaded liposomes. Pharmaceutical Research.16(12):1843-9, 1999

Fresta M. & Puglisi G.: Survival rate improvement in a rat ischemia model by long circulating liposomes containing cytidine-5I-diphosphate choline. Life Sciences. 61(13):1227-35, 1997

Fresta M. Puglisi G. Di Giacomo C. & Russo A.: Liposomes as in-vivo carriers for citicoline: effects on rat cerebral post-ischaemic reperfusion.Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 46(12):974-81, 1994

Fujio T. & Maruyama A.: Enzymatic production of pyrimidine nucleotides using Corynebacterium ammoniagenes cells and recombinant Escherichia coli cells: enzymatic production of CDP-choline from orotic acid and choline chloride (Part I). Bioscience, Biotechnology & Biochemistry. 61(6):956-9, 1997

Fujio T. Teshiba S. & Maruyama A.: Construction of a plasmid carrying both CTP synthetase and a fused gene formed from cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase and choline kinase genes and its application to industrial CDP-choline production: enzymatic production of CDP-choline from orotic acid (Part II). Bioscience, Biotechnology & Biochemistry. 61(6):960-4, 1997

G-Coviella IL. & Wurtman RJ.: Enhancement by cytidine of membrane phospholipid synthesis. Journal of Neurochemistry. 59(1):338-43, 1992

Gimenez R. & Aguilar J.: Cytidine (5') diphosphocholine-induced decrease in cerebral platelet activating factor is due to inactivation of its synthesizing enzyme cholinephosphotransferase in aged rats.Neuroscience Letters. 299(3):209-12, 2001

Gimenez R. Soler S. & Aguilar J.: Cytidine diphosphate choline administration activates brain cytidine triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylytransferase in aged rats. Neuroscience Letters. 273(3):163-6, 1999

Gimenez R. & Aguilar J.: Effects of CDP-choline administration on brain striatum platelet-activating factor in aging rats. European Journal of Pharmacology. 344(2-3):149-52, 1998

Kakihana M. Fukuda N. Suno M. & Nagaoka A.: Effects of CDP-choline on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism in a rat model of cerebral ischemia. Stroke. 19(2):217-22, 1988

Lopez-Coviella I. Agut J. Savci V. Ortiz JA. & Wurtman RJ.: Evidence that 5'-cytidinediphosphocholine can affect brain phospholipid composition by increasing choline and cytidine plasma levels. Journal of Neurochemistry. 65(2):889-94, 1995

Onal MZ. Li F. Tatlisumak T. Locke KW. Sandage BW Jr. & Fisher M.: Synergistic effects of citicoline and MK-801 in temporary experimental focal ischemia in rats. Stroke. 28(5):1060-5, 1997

Parisi V. Manni G. Colacino G. & Bucci MG.: Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline) improves retinal and cortical responses in patients with glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 106(6):1126-34, 1999

Petkov VD. Mosharrof AH. Kehayov R. Petkov VV. Konstantinova E. & Getova D.: Effect of CDP-choline on learning and memory processes in rodents. Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology.14(8):593-605, 1992

Porciatti V. Schiavi C. Benedetti P. Baldi A. & Campos EC.: Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine improves visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and visually-evoked potentials of amblyopic subjects. Current Eye 7) Rao AM. Hatcher JF. & Dempsey RJ.: CDP-choline: neuroprotection in transient forebrain ischemia of gerbils. Journal of Neuroscience Research. 58(5):697-705, 1999

Porciatti V. Schiavi C. Benedetti P. Baldi A. & Campos EC.: Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine improves visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and visually-evoked potentials of amblyopic subjects. Current Eye Research.17(2):141-8, 1998

Rao AM. Hatcher JF. & Dempsey RJ.: Lipid alterations in transient forebrain ischemia: possible new mechanisms of CDP-choline neuroprotection. Journal of Neurochemistry. 75(6):2528-35, 2000

Schabitz WR. Li F. Irie K. Sandage BW Jr. Locke KW. & Fisher M.: Synergistic effects of a combination of low-dose basic fibroblast growth factor and citicoline after temporary experimental focal ischemia.Stroke. 30(2):427-32, 1999

Schabitz WR. Weber J. Takano K. Sandage BW. Locke KW. & Fisher M.: The effects of prolonged treatment with citicoline in temporary experimental focal ischemia. Journal of the Neurological Sciences.138(1-2):21-5, 1996

Secades JJ. & Frontera G.: CDP-choline: pharmacological and clinical review. Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology.17(Suppl B):1-54, 1995

Serra I. Alberghina M. Viola M. Mistretta A. & Giuffrida AM.: Effect of CDP-choline on the biosynthesis of nucleic acids and proteins in brain regions during hypoxia. Neurochemical Research. 6(6):607-18, 1981

Shuaib A. Yang Y. & Li Q.: Evaluating the efficacy of citicoline in embolic ischemic stroke in rats: neuroprotective effects when used alone or in combination with urokinase. Experimental Neurology. 161(2):733-9, 2000

Spiers PA. Myers D. Hochanadel GS. Lieberman HR. Wurtman RJ.: Citicoline improves verbal memory in aging.[erratum appears in Arch Neurol 1996 Oct;53(10):964]. Archives of Neurology. 53(5):441-8, 1996 May.

Trovarelli G. de Medio GE. Dorman RV. Piccinin GL. Horrocks LA. & Porcellati G.: Effect of cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) on ischemia-induced alterations of brain lipid in the gerbil. Neurochemical Research. 6(8):821-33, 1981

Trovarelli G. Palmerini CA. Floridi A. Piccinin GL. & Porcellati G.: The transport of cytidine into rat brain in vivo, and its conversion into cytidine metabolites. Neurochemical Research. 7(10):1199-207, 1982

Trovarelli G. Palmerini CA. Floridi A. Piccinin GL. & Porcellati G.: The influence of cytidine on the endogenous pool of CDP-choline, CDP-ethanolamine, and CMP of the rat brain. Neurochemical Research.9(1):73-9, 1984

Vecchini A. Binaglia L. Floridi A. Palmerini CA. & Procellati G.: Uptake and utilization of CDP-choline in primary brain cell cultures from fetal brain. Neurochemical Research. 8(3):333-40, 1983

Wang CS. & Lee RK.: Choline plus cytidine stimulate phospholipid production, and the expression and secretion of amyloid precursor protein in rat PC12 cells. Neuroscience Letters. 283(1):25-8, 2000

Warach S. Pettigrew LC. Dashe JF. Pullicino P. Lefkowitz DM. Sabounjian L. Harnett K. Schwiderski U. & Gammans R.: Effect of citicoline on ischemic lesions as measured by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Citicoline 010 Investigators. Annals of Neurology. 48(5):713-22, 2000

Wurtman RJ. Regan M. Ulus I. & Yu L.: Effect of oral CDP-choline on plasma choline and uridine levels in humans. Biochemical Pharmacology. 60(7):989-92, 2000